Volume 73, Number 8 (November 2015)                   Tehran Univ Med J 2015, 73(8): 545-553 | Back to browse issues page


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Alatab S, Pourmand G. Implication of thymoglobulin in kidney transplant patients: review article. Tehran Univ Med J. 2015; 73 (8) :545-553
URL: http://tumj.tums.ac.ir/article-1-6959-en.html

1- Urology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
2- Urology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. , gh_pourmand@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (2982 Views)

Thymoglobulin is a purified polyclonal immunoglobulin that has been used widely over the last decades in the prevention and treatment of rejection following renal transplantation. This immunoglobulin works against human thymocytes. Since thymoglobulin does not contain the nephrotoxic properties therefore it can be used in induction therapy especially in patients with higher risk of graft rejection such as patients who receive graft from cadavers. Recent research showed also its beneficial role in cross-match-positive transplantation, a role that is mediated through conjunction with inhibitors of terminal complement activation. This immunoglobulin has also been used for treatment of rejection following renal transplantation. Thymoglobulin can have various effects on various Immune system cells including T cells, B cells and also plasma cells. Thymoglobulin also affects the Tcell surface antigens, natural killer-cell antigens, B cell antigens, plasma cell antigens, adhesion molecules and chemokine receptors. Diverse effects of thymoglobulin on the immune system includes: T cell depletion, induce apoptosis in B cell lineage and interference with dendritic cell functional properties. Thymoglobulin can cause acute complications, delayed complications as well as infectious complications. Acute reaction events includes: anaphylaxis, fever, chills, dyspnea, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Thymoglobulin also induces cytokine release syndrome manifested by high grade fevers and chills and treated by steroid therapy. Delayed reactions events usually present as serum sickness and infections. Infectious complications are more important and include cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, sepsis, candidiasis, herpes simplex and urinary infections. Thymoglobulin can also induce cytokine release syndrome. It has been thought that thymoglobulin increases the risk of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), however, debate still exists whether such an association is present when lower dosing regimens are used. In this review, we aimed to present first a brief history of thymoglobulin development and its mechanism of action and then assess the most recent published data regarding the role of thymoglobulin in following issues: immunological tolerance, ischemia-reperfusion injury, delayed graft function, prevention and treatment of acute allograft rejection, live donor transplantation, graft and patient survival and posttrans-plant lymphoproliferative disorder. This review can help specialist in transplant domain to appropriately used thymoglobulin in transplant patients.

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