Volume 74, Issue 1 (April 2016)                   Tehran Univ Med J 2016, 74(1): 1-8 | Back to browse issues page

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Aminimoghaddam S, Norouzi S. Ovarian failure due to cancer treatment and fertility preservation options. Tehran Univ Med J. 2016; 74 (1) :1-8
URL: http://tumj.tums.ac.ir/article-1-7344-en.html
1- Department of Gynecology Oncology, Firoozgar Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
2- Department of Obstetrical and Gynecology, Firoozgar Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. , sr.norouzi@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (4827 Views)

Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI), commonly referred to premature ovarian failure, is defined as ovarian failure before the age of 40 years. It is the loss of ovarian function caused by a process directly affecting ovaries. Cancer therapy which includes surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy influence ovarian function, leading to premature menopause and loss of fertility. POI is idiopathic in most cases (74-90%). The known causes, in addition to anticancer treatment, are other processes like chromosomal abnormalities, autoimmunity, and natural aging can result in secondary ovarian failure, which is detected by an increase in serum gonadotropin levels (FSH and LH). There are evident risks of POI in women treated for cancer. Those who receive anticancer treatments have an increased risk of developing POI. There by, anticancer drugs and radiation therapy are considered as the most common toxins of ovaries. Although cancer incidence rates in women less than 50 years old continue to increase during recent years, mortality rates are dramatically decreasing due to modern advances in treatment. Increasing numbers of survivors are now confronted with the long-term consequences of exposure to these treatments. The pool of primordial follicles in the ovary is fixed and any injury to the ovary can potentially reduce this ovarian reserve, effectively advancing the patient’s reproductive age, thus narrowing the window of reproductive opportunity. Ovarian failure occurs in a significant percentage of childhood cancer survivors and many of them will seek care for reproductive dysfunction. Nevertheless, Embryo cryopreservation, oocyte cryopreservation, ovary tissue cryopreservation, ovarian suppression and oophoro-pexy are some options to preserve fertility in these groups. As a result, having foreknowledge of potential treatment related ovarian failure will allow the physician to give a better counsel to patients and their family regarding the importance and timing of fertility preservation by giving an estimated window of fertility. The objectives of the current review are to report on the etiology of POF induced through cancer therapy.

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