Volume 74, Issue 1 (April 2016)                   Tehran Univ Med J 2016, 74(1): 70-74 | Back to browse issues page

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Pourali L, Khazaee A, Ayati S, Layegh P, Dadgar S, Mirza Marjani F et al . Herpes encephalitis during pregnancy: a case report of maternal death. Tehran Univ Med J. 2016; 74 (1) :70-74
URL: http://tumj.tums.ac.ir/article-1-7354-en.html
1- Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women's Health Research Center, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
2- Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women's Health Research Center, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. , ayatis@mums.ac.ir
3- Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
Abstract:   (2357 Views)

Background: Herpes encephalitis is the most common cause of fatal encephalitis in the world which often presents with sudden fever, headache, seizure, focal neurologic symptoms, and consciousness loss. The aim of this study was to report a case of maternal death caused by herpes encephalitis which appropriate antibiotic therapy delayed because of early diagnosis of eclampsia.

Case Presentation: A 16-year-old pregnant woman at 36th weeks of gestation was referred to gynecology emergency department of Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences in 2016. She was admitted due to 4 times of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and blood pressure of 140/90 mmHg with diagnosis of eclampsia. Cesarean section was performed for fetal distress and eclampsia remote from delivery. 6 hours after cesarean section because of higher than 39 °C and reduction in consciousness status, she was transferred to intensive care unit (ICU). The first brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was normal. Lumbar puncture (LP) was performed and brain MRI was repeated that increased signal was observed in two sides of basal ganglia. Intravenous acyclovir was administered by possible diagnosis of viral meningoencephalitis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was positive in terms of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Unfortunately, the patient died 35 days after hospitalization by diagnosis of HSV-1 encephalitis and bilateral infarction with frequent seizures and clinical manifestation of septic shock refractory to treatment.

Conclusion: Although the first diagnosis for generalized convulsion during pregnancy is eclampsia, but in case of recurrent and specially atypical seizures and low consciousness level, other diagnosis like meningoencephalitis, brain lesions and cavernous sinus thrombosis (CVT) must be considered and ruled out.

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Type of Study: Case Report |

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