Volume 75, Issue 9 (December 2017)                   Tehran Univ Med J 2017, 75(9): 632-644 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Halabchi F, Shahidzadeh Mahani A, Seifbarghi T. Sudden cardiac death in athletes and its preventive strategies: review article. Tehran Univ Med J. 2017; 75 (9) :632-644
URL: http://tumj.tums.ac.ir/article-1-8424-en.html
1- Department of Sports Medicine, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. , fhalabchi@tums.ac.ir
2- Department of Sports Medicine, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Abstract:   (977 Views)
Sudden cardiac death in sport, although rare, but is a tragic event, attracting the media and public attention. Sport and exercise may act as a trigger for sudden cardiac death. Risk of sudden death in young athletes with cardiovascular disease is 2.5 times more frequent than non-athlete individuals. More than 90% of cases of sudden death occur during or immediately after training or competition. Incidence of sudden cardiac death in any population, including athletes, is related to multiple factors such as gender, age, race, nationality, diagnostic screening methods and preventive measures for sudden cardiac death. Otherwise, incidence rate of sudden cardiac death is linked to the used definition and method of diagnosis. Different cardiovascular disorders may result in death of young athletes and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, congenital coronary anomalies, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia and aortic rupture are among the most common causes. Marfan syndrome, dilated cardiomyopathy, viral myocarditis, Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome, congenital long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome and commotio cordis are reported as other etiologies. In older athletes (more than 35 years), ischemic coronary heart disease is responsible for majority of the cases similar to the general population. Because the outcome of sudden cardiac arrest in sports is very poor except in few cases, proper national strategies are needed to diminish the burden of sudden death in young athletes. It seems that there are two main strategies to achieve this goal: A) Primary prevention with use of purposeful pre-participation evaluation programs. This evaluation should focuss on the proper history and physical examination. Nevertheless, there is significant debate between American and European countries regarding the use of paraclinical investigations (especially ECG). American heart association does not recommend ECG as an essential part of evaluation. In contrast, European society of cardiology and international olympic committee advocate ECG for all athletes younger than 35 years. However, all evaluations should be based on national, generally accepted standards and done by well-educated experts. B) Setting evidence-based and updated protocols for early and effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), attendance of well equipped medical staff and early access to automated external defibrillator (AED) in all sport events and implementing CPR education in all coaching training courses.

Full-Text [PDF 377 kb]   (843 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Review Article |

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA code

Send email to the article author