Volume 76, Issue 2 (May 2018)                   Tehran Univ Med J 2018, 76(2): 79-89 | Back to browse issues page

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1- Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
2- Shefa Neuroscience Research Center, Khatam Alanbia Hospital, Tehran, Iran.
3- Students Research Committee, Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Research Management Office, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
4- Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. , fariba_karimzad@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (4243 Views)
Nowadays, there are various animal models of acute and chronic seizures. Some chemical and electrical models such as seizure induced by pentylenetetrazol injection and maximum electric shock has been developed over of six decades and different kinds of chemical, electrical and genetic models have been admitted up to now. Among chemical models of seizure induction penicillin, bicuculline, tetanus toxin, pentylenetetrazol, pilocarpine and kainic acid are the more common chemoconvulsants to induce acute and chronic seizures. Numerous mechanisms involved in different models lead to develop different types of seizures. This variety leads to be confused beginner researchers which model should be carried in a research hypothesis. This study was aimed to illustrate how choose the most proper animal model for a hypothesis as well as different animal models of seizure and epilepsy. Penicillin and bicuculine are most proper models to induce focal seizures. In addition, pilocarpine and kainic acid are able to develop temporal lobe seizures. Pentylenetetrazol and tetanus toxin could develop acute and chronic generalized and tonic-clonic seizures. Furthermore, maximum electric shock has been well known as a proper model for acute seizures induction. Electrical kindling of amygdala could develop repetitive temporal lobe seizures. Hypoxia model of seizure is more used for screening of anti-epileptic drugs, long-term consequences, and epileptogenesis mechanisms. Also, hyperthermic (febrile) models of seizure are reliable for studying epileptogenesis mechanisms and cognitive consequences. Genetic models such as recurrent simultaneous (such as GAERS, WAG/Rij) and reflex seizures (such as GEPR) are more valid in some studies, including absence and audiogenic seizures. WAG/Rij rats have been known as the most valid animal model for absence epilepsy. It should be noted that the animal model is a simple expression of a complex system and it covers only a part of what happens in humans’ body. The most important use of animal models of seizure is developing and finding more effective and new anti-epileptic drugs. Therefore, proper selection of the animal model between numerous animal models of seizure induction is crucial to design an equitable hypothesis. The evidences reviewed in this study made beginner researchers potent to choose the best model.
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