Volume 76, Issue 8 (November 2018)                   Tehran Univ Med J 2018, 76(8): 509-516 | Back to browse issues page

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Saffarzadeh N, Farshbaf A, Tavakkoly-Bazzaz J. New approaches in cancer immunotherapy: review article. Tehran Univ Med J. 2018; 76 (8) :509-516
URL: http://tumj.tums.ac.ir/article-1-9169-en.html
1- Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
2- Department of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.
3- Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. , tavakkolybazzazj@tums.ac.ir
Abstract:   (1666 Views)
Cancer immunotherapy refers to any intervention that leverages the immune system to eliminate a malignancy. Successful cancer immunotherapies generate an anti-cancer response that is systemic, specific, and durable and overcome to the primary limitations of traditional cancer treatment modalities. In this review paper, the effective methods in immune system to treat cancer, such as immunosuppression in tumor microenvironment (TME), cancer vaccines and T cell adaptive therapy are mentioned. Engineered T cells can use for destruction of the different cancer tissues to diagnose tumor surface antigens. Promotion in culture of T cell methods and their engineering with retroviral vectors that carry T cell receptors or chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) by co-stimulator domains, provide opportunity to treat tumor by T cells. The tumors with high genome mutation, such as lung and melanoma, have severe environmental mutagenesis that is induced by ultra violet light in melanoma and Tobacco in lung cancers. Expression of tumor specific receptors is increased by engineered T cells. The neo-antigens conduct the intensity of intra tumor T cell response. The present of CD8+ in tumor site with more mutation is higher and the mutation load is showed strong relation with the clinical response. In addition to the successful approaches to cancer immunotherapy, the other combination and molecular therapies by nanomaterials are listed. Nanomaterials as efficient modulators and diverse vaccine have been developed in the treatment of cancer. In recent cancer vaccine development has been on subunit vaccines that contain purified tumor antigens or antigenic epitopes as an antigen source. However, soluble bolus-based subunit vaccines typically induce weak cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses which limit their utility for cancer. To overcome this, nanoscale colloids can be used to promote more efficient antigen presentation by acting as phagocytic substrates. Nanomaterials are showed co-suppression and immunization in tumor microenvironment by multiple additive functions in preclinical models. In this manner, they exhibited good prospects because of the good results in overcoming the limitations of current therapies. In this review paper is tried to provide new prospect for therapies and hope it creates highest efficacy and lowest side effects for the treatment of patients in the near future.
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Type of Study: Review Article |

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