Volume 64, Issue 12 (6 2006)                   Tehran Univ Med J 2006, 64(12): 76-83 | Back to browse issues page

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Shamimi K, Aminian A, Moazami F, Jalali M. Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome in the surgical intensive care unit of Imam Khomeini Hospital: a 12 months study. Tehran Univ Med J. 2006; 64 (12) :76-83
URL: http://tumj.tums.ac.ir/article-1-863-en.html
Abstract:   (10738 Views)
Background: Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a clinical entity that develops from progressive, acute increases in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and adversely affects all vital organ systems In this study, the development of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and ACS in a surgical ICU population is described and examined.
Methods: Over a one-year period (2004), urinary bladder pressure (UBP) was measured prospectively in all surgical patients with abdominal problems admitted to the ICU of the Imam Hospital complex. UBP of >20 cm H2O indicated IAH. ACS was defined as the development of multiple organ dysfunction including peak airway pressure (PAP) >50 cm H2O, Horowitz quotient <150 torr or urine output <0.5 ml/kg/hr in the setting of IAH. Data were gathered on all patients with IAH and ACS.
Results: We evaluated some 353 patients, consisting of 165 elective laparatomies and 188 emergency cases, including 28 trauma patients. The incidence of IAH and ACS was 2 and 1 per cent (7 and 3 patients, respectively). The mean IAP of these seven patients was 29.8 cm H2O. No elevated IAP was observed after elective laparotomy (165 patients), nor in emergency cases with temporary abdominal wall closure (29 patients). APACHE II score, PAP and worst base deficit were significantly higher in patients with elevated IAP. None of the three patients with ACS underwent decompressive laparotomy. The mortality rate for patients with elevated IAP was 85%, significantly higher than the total study population.
Conclusion: IAH is a rare disease of the rarity of IAH, routine measurement of IAP is necessary only in high-risk patients. Prophylactic temporary abdominal wall closure may prevent IAH and ACS in high-risk patients. Patients with elevated IAP have dismal outcomes. Critical care practitioners should become familiar with different aspects of IAH and ACS, including decompressive laparotomy.
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