Volume 74, Issue 8 (November 2016)                   Tehran Univ Med J 2016, 74(8): 535-544 | Back to browse issues page

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Abbasi B, Ansari Nejad N, Fardad F, Nasiripour S, Ramim T. Breast cancer epigenetics: review article. Tehran Univ Med J. 2016; 74 (8) :535-544
URL: http://tumj.tums.ac.ir/article-1-7744-en.html
1- Department of Medical Genetics, Medical Biotechnology Ins., National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), Tehran, Iran. Cancer Pharmacogenetics Research Group (CPGRG), Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
2- Department of Hematology-Oncology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Cancer Pharmacogenetics Research Group (CPGRG), Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
3- Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
4- Cancer Pharmacogenetics Research Group (CPGRG), Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. , tayebramim@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (7233 Views)

Stable molecular changes during cell division without any change in the sequence of DNA molecules is known as epigenetic. Molecular mechanisms involved in this process, including histone modifications, methylation of DNA, protein complex and RNA antisense. Cancer genome changes happen through a combination of DNA hypermethylation, long-term epigenetic silencing with heterozygosis loss and genomic regions loss. Different combinations of N-terminal’s changes cooperate with histone variants with a specific role in gene regulation. It have led to load a setting histone that determine transcription potential of a particular gene or genomic regions. DNA methylation analysis in genome region using methylation-specific digital karyotyping of normal breast tissue detect gene expression patterns and DNA specific methylation can be found in breast carcinoma too more than 100 genes in breast tumors or cell lines of breast cancer are reported hypermethylated. Important of DNA methylation on cancer has been concentrated CpG islands hypermethylation. Most of the techniques are able to identify hypermethylated areas. Often, methylated genes play important role in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, metastasis and tissue invasion, angiogenesis and hormonal signaling. Cyclin D2 (CCND2) gene is an important regulator of cell cycle and increased of expression inhibits the transition from G1 to S cell cycle. This gene is frequently methylated in breast cancer and has been proposed as the first event. Other cell cycle regulator is p16ink4A / CDKN2A that methylated in a large number of human cancers, including breast cancer. Another regulator of the proliferation of breast cancer that methylated is tumor suppressor RAR-β cancer that has been found in lobular and ductal carcinoma. Recent studies have showed the role of epigenetic silencing in the pathogenesis of breast cancer in which tumor suppressor genes have been changed by acetylation and DNA deacetylation. Histone deacetylase inhibitors have different roles in cancer cells and could show the ways of new treatment for breast cancer. In this review, various aspects of breast cancer epigenetics and its applications in diagnosis, prediction and treatment are described.

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